Spelling: Words with Long a: ai, ay
- If the subject tells about one other person or thing, add -s to an action verb. For other subjects, do not add -s.
- Most verbs are action verbs. And action verb tells what the subject does.
- To show the present tense for the subject he, she, or it, add -s to the end of most action verbs.
- If a verb ends in x, ch, sh, ss, or z, add -es.
Social Studies and Academic Vocabulary:
advertisement, buyer, market, money, pay, seller, accomplish, cooperation, determine, paraphrase, planety, purpose, theme, plenty
Spelling: Plurals with -s and -es
Vocabulary Strategy: Suffixes
A suffix is a word part that comes at the end of a word. It changes the word’s meaning.
Some common suffixes are:
-y (full of)
-ness (the state of)
-er (someone who)
-tion (state of)
-ful (full of, with a lot of)
-est (the most or best)
Grammar: Noncount Nouns
A noncount noun: cannot be counted, has one form that does not change,
Do not use a or an before a noncount noun.
Use a singular verb with a noncount noun.
Spelling: Words with VCe and long and short vowels
Grammar: Irregular Plurals and Noncount Nouns
Some nouns show the plural in different ways (ex: child – children, foot – feet, mouse – mice).
Some nouns use the same form for singular and plural (ex: deer, fish, sheep, moose).
Some nouns cannot be counted. They have only one form for singular or plural (ex: wood, snow, rain, sunshine).
Scientific and Academic Vocabulary: city, desert, rainforest, vine, weed, main idea, details, diversity, environment, organism, protect, unique
Spelling: Multisyllabic Words
Practice online at Spelling City: https://www.spellingcity.com/users/AGould3B
Grammar: Count Nouns
A singular noun names one person, place, or thing. A plural noun names more than one.
Add -s to most nouns to show more than one. Add -es to nouns that end in ch, sh, ss, x, z, and sometimes o.
For count nouns that end in a consonant plus y, change the y to i and add –es. For nouns that end in a vowel plus y, just add -s.
Never change the base spelling of a proper name. Just add -s or -es depending on the final consonant.
Vocabulary Strategy: Multiple Meaning Words
Some words have more than one meaning. You can use context, or the words near the word, to figure out the correct meaning.
Spelling: Words with long e, i and o
Grammar: Complex Sentences
- A complex sentence has an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
- A conjunction joins the dependent clause to the independent clause.
- If the dependent clause come first, put a comma after it.
blossom, cycle, root, seed, soil, sprout, event, order, sequence
characteristic, conditions, depend, growth, produce, inference
Spelling: Consonant Blends
Grammar: Dependent/Independent Clauses; Compound Sentences
An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence.
A dependent clause cannot stand alone. A signal word connects it to an independent clause. Some signal words include: although, before, after, because, if, even if, unless, until, since.
Two independent clauses can be joined together to make a compound sentence. Join clauses with a comma and the conjunctions and, but, or or.
Vocabulary Strategy: Pronunciation
If you are unsure of how to say a word, the dictionary can help you determine the pronunciation.
The pronunciation guide helps you know how many syllables there are and which syllable gets the stress.
Unit 2, Week 3 Word Work
Spelling: Words with digraphs th and ng
Grammar: Contractions, Compound Subjects and Predicates
- Contractions combine two words and use an apostrophe to mark where letters were removed.
- Simple sentences that have the same subject or predicate can be combined into a compound sentence.
Science Vocabulary: drought, ecosystem, food chain, level, river
Academic Vocabulary: cause, competition, effect, nature, negative, positive, resources
Spelling: Words with digraphs ck and sh
There are four kinds of sentences. Each kind has its own purpose:
- A statement tells something and ends with a period.
- A question asks something and ends with a question mark.
- An exclamation shows feeling and ends with an exclamation mark.
- A command give direction and ends with a period.
Each syllable in a word contains one vowel sound (there may be more than one vowel).
The dictionary entry for a word shows the number of syllables.
Spelling: Words with short e
Science Vocabulary: amount, behavior, decrease, increase, supply
Academic Vocabulary: balance, compare, contrast, control, inreact, react, scarce
Grammar: Capitalization in titles, commas in addresses, and punctuation of dialogue
- capitalize the first, last, and any key words in a title
- italicize or underline titles of books, movies, plays, magazines, newspapers, tv series, and long poems
- use quotation marks for songs, poems, short stories, chapter titles, articles, or episode titles
- use commas to separate the parts of an address: street address, city, state, country
- when writing dialogue, put quotation marks around the speaker’s exact words. Use commas to offset the dialogue from the sentence.
Spelling Unit 1, Week 4: Words with digraphs ch, tch
Grammar: Subject-Verb Agreement; Compound Subjects
The verb is the most important word in the predicate and must agree (singular/plural) with the simple subject. A singular subject needs a singular verb and a plural subject needs a plural verb.
A compound subject is when two subjects share the same predicate. If they are joined by and, the verb must be plural. If they are joined by or the verb matches the last subject.
Vocabulary Strategy: Using a Dictionary
If you don’t know the meaning of a word, you can use a dictionary or glossary to help.
Dictionary entries are in alphabetical order and typically give the following information:
- Word type (part of speech)